Each case study in the Media Manipulation Casebook is coded with variables and values that are emergent from the existing cases and have been developed after multiple rounds of review. They were determined by identifying the most salient traits that are also applicable to all the cases. These codes function as a way to organize and filter case studies based on a common feature while offering comparability and nuance across the different cases.
Each case goes through a minimum of two rounds of coding to ensure each code corresponds to the evidence and text in the description of the media manipulation life cycle. The initial round is conducted by the primary author of the case, followed by a member of the TaSC team. Any discrepancies in codes are discussed after between the two coders. If there are still any outstanding discrepancies, a third round of coding by a different member of the TaSC team is conducted, and any differences resolved between all three coders.
For more information on the life cycle model, selection criteria, coding process, and research methods, please refer to our code book below.